Golden Trade of the Moors: West African Kingdoms in the Fourteenth Century
by E.W. Bovill
Ancient Ghana and Mali
by Nehemiah Levtzion
Social History of Timbuktu: The Role of Muslim Scholars and Notables 1400-1900
by Elias Saad
Sunjata: A West African Epic of the Mande Peoples
by David C. Conrad
Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sa'di's Ta'rikh Al-Sudan down to 1613 and Other Contemporary Documents
by John Hunwick
Long before the Europeans arrived in the 16th and 17th centuries, sub-Saharan West Africa saw the emergence of a series of African empires that lasted for centuries and stretched over vast swathes of the continent. They were known as the Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires. Here, historian Michael Gomez discusses what led to their greatness, what sustained them and why they fell.
The Ghanaian economist George Ayittey denounces the failure of leadership and Western policy in Africa and explains what “African solutions to African problems” would mean in practice.